Mean vs individual (point) values.

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I would like you to discuss what inference CLT enable us to make, i.e., about mean vs individual (point) values.

CLT, for example, could help with determination of whether there is a concern in a company if both genders are promoted equally. As a case study, you can discuss the following experiment on male bank supervisors attending a management institute. The supervisors were asked to make decisions on whether to promote a hypothetical applicant based on a personnel file. Applicants were chosen randomly half males and half female applicants and randomly assigned to the managers. In this case, we might be interested in testing whether discrimination was a factor by formally looking at average number of males vs females promoted. In broad strokes, explain how you would test this hypothesis by using concepts we discussed so far.

Deduction for qualified business income

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The deduction for qualified business income received a lot of praise and criticism in the press from the time it was introduced in November 2017 to the present. Find reliable articles that explain at least two arguments for and against the QPI deduction. Explain whether you agree with these positions and why.

Strengthening internal controls

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What are your thoughts about strengthening internal controls plus the costs versus benefit argument?

Revenues and profitability

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You choose the company and the new product that you want to showcase in your presentation. It can be real or fictitious (based on an industry). This is for background purposes only. The presentation is to showcase your abilities and what you can contribute to the organization.

IBIS World ( and BizStats ( have estimates of cost of goods sold and some other categories of operating expenses. Information about contribution margins is not available, but adding new products typically mean incurring both fixed and variable costs.

Consequently, cost of goods sold is a reasonable estimate. Net operating income as a percentage of sales or some variation thereof may also be relevant if the new product is expected to contribute significantly to the bottom line. As a candidate for a position you would not have internal information available, but being resourceful and being a skilled researcher are desired traits for the position. IBIS World also has a wealth of other market statistics that may be helpful. Use listed background material and other resources as needed

(6 slides)


Include the following items in your presentation:

1What about special pricing for some markets or customers?

2Determination of customer profitability.

3Show effect on revenues and profitability based on stated assumptions.

4Potential advantages and disadvantages, both financial and non-financial.

Ethics in Accounting

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Ethics in Accounting (with particular emphasis on integrity (e.g  asset misappropriation, corruption, financial statement fraud etc.)

  • Prepare a one page summary (double-spaced) describing your topic proposal problem statement. You should discuss what your topic is, between three and five areas that you plan to analyze about this topic, and how you plan to approach your research on this topic.

A Challenge to Capital Budgeting Strategies

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Financing corporate purchases and overall capital budgeting usually requires the finance manager to assess tax rates, dividend payout policy, weighting of capital sources, and more. However, the Modigliani and Miller propositions state that, in most situations, it does not matter if the firm’s capital is raised by issuing stock or selling debt.

As a student you might assume studies of capital budgeting strategies will no longer be reviewed in coursework.

  • Before coming to that conclusion (as stated above), please discuss the principles presented by Modigliani and Miller and explain your agreement or disagreement.

Presentation to the Board of Directors, the Pros and Con of Debt Financing.

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Presentation to the Board of Directors, the Pros and Con of Debt Financing

The calculation of after-tax cost of debt plays a role in managing capital costs. You have been asked to present a few matters related to Debt (Bond) financing to the Board of Directors.

  • Please briefly explain to the Board: 1) the usual collateral position of Bondholders (lenders) versus Equity investors, 2) why common stockholders can demand a higher rate of return than lenders, and 3) why you would suggest debt (or equity) financing.