Biology

Urethra Structure Disease

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what is the urethra structure disease (USD) ?

what is the symptoms of (USD)?

what is the causes and effects of (USD)?

what is the different between urethroplasty and urethrotomy treatment for (USD)?

why urethrapasty good for long-term success  than urethrotomy?

can you please answer this question as paragraphs?

for example sub heading

1- urethra structure disease

2- symptoms

3- couse and effect

4- treatment

4.1 urethrotomy

4.2 urethroplasty

Pathogen

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Write a short summary for each pathogen ( Salmonella and Shigella, L. monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Vibrio parahemolyticus and V. vulnificus, Clostridium perfringens (and C. botulinum), Norovirus and Hepatitis A virus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (O157:H7), Bacillus cereus) including the following:

Describe for each presentation pathogen (1) a typical outbreak (2) symptoms

(3) briefly, the biology of the pathogen and its

epidemiology

(4) some foods implicated in outbreaks

(5) some control measures that can minimize

illnesses due to this pathogen.

Describe a typical outbreak = this can be brief

Describe symptoms = include time frame (hours, days, weeks, etc).

Biology = gram reaction, morphology, aerobe/anaerobe, etc.  Are there any special biological properties that make this organism more infectious?  Does it have a toxin?  What are the properties of the toxin? (heat stable/labile?)

Epidemiology = how many illness in the USA per year?  How many deaths per year?  Are there locations in USA that have higher incidences?

Implicated foods = what foods are most likely to be related to outbreaks of this pathogen?

Control measures = this section is very important.  What can be done to eliminate this pathogen?  What can be done to minimize this pathogen? Hand washing, cooking, fast cooling, etc

The impact of stress on overall GPA

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1.Literature Review (this information will be included in the Introduction section of your final proposal paper).

a. Importance of topic: Why is this topic important or interesting?

b. Summary of research: List each source you will cite in your formal proposal. Provide a brief (1-2 sentence) summary of each source.

c. State your hypothesis:

d. Provide operational definitions for all key terms in your hypothesis:

2. Method (this section explains the details of your proposed experiment).

a. Identify your independent variable:

b. Identify your dependent variable:

c. How will you select your participants?

d. How will you randomly assign participants to groups?

e. Define the experimental group:

f. Define the control group:

g. How will you measure your dependent variable?

h. How will you obtain informed consent?

3. Results (this section discusses the numbers/variables you will compare).

a. What is your predicted outcome?

4. Discussion (this section further explores your predicted outcome).

a. Briefly discuss any ethical concerns you have regarding your proposal:

b. Briefly discuss any potential confounding variables:

Genes

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We each carry 20,000 genes in our genome. Genes can be patented and over 6,000 human genes have been patented. Do you think that companies or individuals should be able to patent human genes? Why or why not?

Mendel’s conclusions

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Summarize Mendel’s conclusions about traits and how they are passed from generation to generation.

Microbiology

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Discuss microbial ecology

Saturated fat and cholesterol

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What is one benefit of eating a dinner high in whole grains? What can you do to ensure you are eating enough whole grains for dinner?Why is it important to avoid saturated fat and cholesterol? What can you do to minimize your saturated fat and cholesterol intake?