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Write a short summary for each pathogen ( Salmonella and Shigella, L. monocytogenes, Campylobacter, Vibrio parahemolyticus and V. vulnificus, Clostridium perfringens (and C. botulinum), Norovirus and Hepatitis A virus, Cryptosporidium and Giardia lamblia, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli (O157:H7), Bacillus cereus) including the following:

Describe for each presentation pathogen (1) a typical outbreak (2) symptoms

(3) briefly, the biology of the pathogen and its


(4) some foods implicated in outbreaks

(5) some control measures that can minimize

illnesses due to this pathogen.

Describe a typical outbreak = this can be brief

Describe symptoms = include time frame (hours, days, weeks, etc).

Biology = gram reaction, morphology, aerobe/anaerobe, etc.  Are there any special biological properties that make this organism more infectious?  Does it have a toxin?  What are the properties of the toxin? (heat stable/labile?)

Epidemiology = how many illness in the USA per year?  How many deaths per year?  Are there locations in USA that have higher incidences?

Implicated foods = what foods are most likely to be related to outbreaks of this pathogen?

Control measures = this section is very important.  What can be done to eliminate this pathogen?  What can be done to minimize this pathogen? Hand washing, cooking, fast cooling, etc